advertising management introduction

University. [39] Research studies also suggest that consumers who are involved in the purchase decision are more likely to actively seek out product information and actively process advertising messages while low-involvement consumers are more likely to respond at an emotional level. According to American Marketing Association, “Advertising is any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods and services by an identified sponsor”. Procter and Gamble, the top US advertiser, spent US$4.3 billion in 2015 on national media[85] (exclusive of agency fees and production costs) while a small local advertiser might spend just a few thousand dollars in the same period. [116], Transit (bus, train, tram, cable-car, taxi), Out-of-home (billboards, posters, street furniture, signage, footpath artetc.). The term Marketing management, though popular today, has a history which dates centuries back.The first trading system which was adopted by humanity was the barter system – a thing for a thing. Some hierarchy-free models treat brands as 'myth' and advertising as 'myth-making' while other models seek to tap into the consumer's memories of pleasant consumption experiences (e.g. • Walter Thompson is known as the inventor of modern advertising and Albert Lasker as father of modern advertising. and Spence-Stone, R., List of most watched television broadcasts, "Oracles on "Advertising": Searching for a Definition",,,, "The Media Business: Advertising--Addenda; Leaving Calvin Klein For a Job at Limited", "Thinking of Pulling a CareerBuilder? coolness, prestige, Focus on the brand experience, the ownership experience, the shopping experience or the consumption experience, Use with experiential goods where differentiation is difficult, Focus on product class with emotional appeal, Omit category need as an objective of advertising or promotion, Mention category need to remind customer of previously established need, "Sell" category need using positive or negative motivations, Use taglines, slogans, jingles to teach brand recall and strengthen learning, Show product packaging or label in all advertising, Customer knows where to purchase product or service and how much to pay for it, Not obvious where to purchase or how to find retailer, Incorporate purchase-facilitation in all marketing communications, Informational: rational appeals that typically provide information about the brand's benefits, Transformational: emotional appeals that assist consumers to imagine an aspirational lifestyle, Who do we want to talk to? Hierarchy-free models draw on evidence from psychology and consumer neuroscience which suggest that consumers process information via different pathways rather than in any linear/ sequential manner. Advertising Management – Evolution, Objectives, Functions, Socio-Economic Effects. The "right" promotional mix should consider both message impact and message consistency. Simply put: Marketing is the delivery of customer satisfaction at a profit. A number of hierarchical models can be found in the literature including Lavidge's hierarchy of effects, DAGMAR and AIDA and other variants. when anything is brought to the notice of consumers in a public manner. and Reece, B.B., "A Revised Model of Advertising Processing: Extending the Dual Mediation Hypothesis,", Maclnnis, D.J. The process of moving consumers from purchase intention to actual sales is known as conversion. Other marketing communication activities carried on by organizations apart from Advertising are selling promotion, publicity and personal selling. Corporate advertising refers to paid messages designed to that communicate the corporation's values in an effort to influence public opinion. The review should take note of the overall target market. Careful perusal of the marketing plan will assist marketers in the process of defining the optimal target audiences for specific advertising objectives. However, for adult target audience members, McDonald's uses messages that emphasise convenience and quality. • Modern advertising began from mid 19th Volney B. Palmen was the 1st advertisement agent who established an office in Philadelphia. All these methods involve sampling – that is taking a representative sample of the population and recording their media usage which is then extrapolated to the general population. Based on Kotler,P., Burton, S., Deans, K., Brown,L. It is not always be necessary to reach 100% of the target market. The main aim of effectiveness testing is to improve consumer response rates.[131]. [112] This is sometimes known as the 3+ Rule. In terms of setting media objectives, the planner needs to address several key decisions: A number of key definitions are essential for media planning purposes:[109]. In a seminal paper, Vankratsas and Ambler surveyed more than 250 papers to develop a typology of advertising models. Thus the hierarchy of effects models all include Cognition (C)- Affect (A)- Behaviour (B) as the core steps in the underlying behavioral sequence. Copy testing is testing that evaluates advertising copy and creative executions. Marketing management is the process of decision making, planning, and controlling the marketing aspects of a company in terms of the marketing concept, somewhere within the marketing system. Introduction to Marketing Management. Advertising reaches products and services of brands to the customers. 15.810 Marketing Management is designed to serve as an introduction to the theory and practice of marketing. Advertising management 1. marketing concepts for those new to marketing. The type and depth of freely available information varies across geographic markets. Marketing: An Introduction shows readers how customer value―creating it and capturing it―drives every effective marketing strategy. Arousal is an indicator of the advertisement's ability to grab attention and engage the consumer in the message. Advertising and promotions managers may work for an agency, a public relations firm, a media outlet, or may be hired directly by a company to work in their in-house agency where they would take responsibility for communications designed to develop the company's brands or group of brands. The size of the budget has implications for the promotional mix, the media mix and market coverage. Studies have repeatedly demonstrated a clear association between advertising and sales response. "[34], The advertising and marketing literature suggests a variety of different models to explain how advertising works. In this method, the advertiser determines the advertising objectives and then defines specific, measurable communication tasks that will need to be undertaken to achieve the desired objectives. Broadly, there are two classes of effectiveness testing:[132][133] Tracking refers to a combination of both pre-testing and post-testing in order to provide continuous monitoring of advertising effects. [70], Advertising planning does not occur in a vacuum. For example, a company's short-term marketing objective might be to increase sales response for a given brand. In summary, given that advertising is paid, it is one of the many controllable elements in the marketing program. The main purpose of media research is "to eliminate waste in advertising by objectively analysing the media available for promoting products and services". and Lutz, R.J., "An Empirical Examination of the Structural Antecedents of Attitude toward the Ad in an Advertising Pretesting Context,", Bharadwaj, S.G., Varadarajan, P.R. It praised the virtues of a mysterious drug. introduction to marketing management Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. [4] and "the element of the marketing communications mix that is non-personal, paid for by an identified sponsor, and disseminated through mass channels of communication to promote the adoption of goods, services, persons, or ideas. [69] Hierarchy-free models are of increasing interest to academics and practitioners because they are more customer-centric and allow for the possibility of consumer co-creation of value. [9] Its mission is to provide advertising services in support of its parent company's business and marketing objectives. The promotional mix refers to the specific combination of promotional methods used for a brand, product or family of products. [50] Some of these newer models have been adapted to accommodate consumer's digital media habits. The word Advertising originated from a Latin word ‘Advertire’. For example, a reach objective might read; To reach 50% of women aged 18-25 years. When this mode of purchasing is evident, advertising should be designed to create a strong brand image and media should be selected to support the relevant image. The word Advertising originated from a Latin word ‘Advertire’. Some companies outsource part or all of the work to specialists such as advertising agencies, creative design teams, web designers, media buyers, events management specialists or other relevant service providers. Advertising Management Advertising simply put is telling and selling the product. Campaign tracking can assist advertisers to determine when to introduce a new execution of the same advertising message or to fine-tune the campaign. While advertising refers to the advertising message, per se, advertising management refers to the process of planning and executing an advertising campaign or campaigns; that is, it is a series of planned decisions that begins with market research continues through to setting advertising budgets, developing advertising objectives, executing the creative messages and follows up with efforts to measure the extent to which objectives were achieved and evaluate the cost-benefit of the overall advertising effort. Research studies suggest that eye tracking is associated with brand recognition, but less useful for brand recall. Quadrant 1: High-involvement/ rational purchases: In the first quadrant consumers learn about a product through advertising after which they develop a favourable (or unfavourable) disposition to the product which may or may not culminate in a purchase. Given that this is a rational purchase, consumers need to be informed or reminded of the product's benefits. On the surface, integrated marketing communications appear to be simple common sense. [120] Media owners rely on metrics of both audience size and audience quality to set advertising rates. Promotion of Sales. Advertisement (ad) is an efficient and effective technique to promote goods, services, and ideas. Thus the target audience for a given advertising message may comprise only a subset of the total market as defined in the marketing plan. Introduction to Marketing Management (MKTG 3101) Academic year. The review or audit might consider such issues as prior marketing communications activity, an evaluation of what has been effective in the past, whether new market research studies are warranted, an outline of competitive advertising activity and a review of budgetary considerations. These techniques assume that when exposed to incomplete stimuli, respondents use underlying attitudes or motivations to complete the storyline, thereby revealing their fears and aspirations that may not surface under more direct questioning. The objective and task method is the most rational and defensible of all budgeting methods. [118] In a few countries, where the industry is more fragmented or where there is no clear peak industry association, two or more competing organisations may provide audience measurement services. When wear-out occurs, additional advertising expenditure is simply wasted. As consumers move through the hierarchy of effects they pass through both a cognitive processing stage and an affective processing stage before any action occurs. Integrative models assume that consumers process advertising information via two paths – both cognitive (thinking) and affective (feeling) simultaneously. The most commonly used methods are: percentage-of-sales, objective and task, competitive parity method, market share method, unit sales method, all available funds method and the affordable method.[87]. Findings suggest that advertisements were evaluated more positively when they aligned with participants' motives. PDF. A media schedule is a program or plan that "identifies the media channels used in an advertising campaign, and specifies insertion or broadcast dates, positions, and duration of the messages". ADVERTISING“The means of providing the most persuasive possible selling message to the right prospects at the lowest possible cost".Kotler and Armstrong provide an alternative definition:-"Advertising is any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods and services through … Selected hierarchical models follow: All hierarchical models indicate that brand awareness is a necessary precondition to brand attitude, brand preference or brand purchase intention. Advertising management is a complex process that involves making many layered decisions including the developing advertising strategies, setting an advertising budget, setting advertising objectives, determining the target market, media strategy (which involves media planning), developing the message strategy and evaluating the overall effectiveness of the advertising effort.) [142] Pupil dilation suggests a stronger interest in the stimuli and can be associated with arousal and action. It starts with the identification of needs and wants of a market and continues till the needs and wants are satisfied. [37], A common theme in cognitive information models is that the net favourability of cognitive responses has a direct influence on attitude strength. Subscribe Now and Get the latest updates in your inbox. Rossiter and Bellman have argued that, for advertising purposes, five communications effects should be considered, namely:[83], Pain avoidance: "For fast, sure pain relief, Anacin", Paired category-brand association: "When you think of chocolate, think of Cadbury", Brand Preference: "The burgers are better at Burger King (or Hungry Jack's)", Purchase-facilitation: "Refer to website for nearest stockist". During the process many crucial decisions need to be taken by the Branding and Marketing Communications teams. Projective techniques have been found to be very useful for evaluating concepts and generating new concepts. [130] For example, an advertiser who knows that a grocery buyer does a main shop on Saturday afternoons and a top-up shop on Wednesday nights, may consider TV to achieve general brand awareness, supplemented with radio spots to reach the shopper while he or she is driving to the supermarket or regular place of purchase on the days when the majority of consumers carry out their shopping. activities, interests, work, Claim of superiority based on extrinsic factors such as customer perceptions, designed to give the brand a 'personality', Use with low-tech goods where differentiation is difficult e.g. With respect to reach objectives, planners must decide what proportion of the target market need to be exposed to the advertising message. Although much of the audience research data is only available to subscribers and prospective advertisers, basic information is published for the general public, often as topline survey findings. Good measures of advertising ROI should consider both short term and long term measures. Balakrishnan S #3. American Marketing Association (AMA), Online: The American Heritage Dictionary, 5th ed., 2015, Online: Bearden, W. O., Ingram, T.N. [119] Media owners typically share research findings with prospective advertisers, while selected findings are available to the general public via the media research company or an entity, such as a broadcast commission, established to administer the audience research process. Quadrant 3: Low-involvement/ rational purchases: The third quadrant represents routine low-involvement purchases evident for many packaged goods such as detergents, tissues and other consumable household items. However, money was later on established and it became the basic of all transactions. Pupil dilation is not only used to study advertising, but also used to investigate product and package design. the MAC- Memory-Affect-Cognition model). The word sales management is a combination of two words- sales and management. This technique has been used to identify specific brain networks associated with pleasure and arousal associated with advertising.[147]. Some pertinent decision that needs to be taken with respect to promoting products and brands through Advertisements are listed below. Thi… A particular area of concern during an advertising campaign is the problem of advertising wear-out. Consumers make habitual purchases, and after consumption the benefit of using the brand is reinforced which ideally results in long-term brand loyalty (re-purchase). This paper. Harrison, T.P., Lee, H.L. MARKETING-MANAGEMENT-NOTES.pdf. [128] With flighted schedules, the second and subsequent flights tend to build on the first flight, resulting in awareness levels similar to a continuous schedule, but often with reduced costs.[129]. "Relationship Marketing: Positioning for the Future". Advertising management is a complex process that involves making many layered decisions including the developing advertising strategies, setting an advertising budget, setting advertising objectives, determining the target market, media strategy (which involves media planning), developing the message strategy and evaluating the overall effectiveness of the advertising effort.) 15-093, Harvard Business School. Rethinking the Sourcing of Advertising Services," Working Paper no. [Target market/ audience definition], How often does an audience member need to hear our message before it is noticed or achieves the desired consumer response? Cost estimates are developed for each communication task in order to arrive at a total budget estimate. 2014/2015 [2] The American Heritage Dictionary defines advertising as "the activity of attracting public attention to a product or business, as by paid announcements in the print, broadcast, or electronic media". Contemporary hierarchical models often modify or expand the basic AIDA model, resulting in additional steps, however, all follow the basic sequence which includes Cognition- Affect- Behaviour. 50% TV; 30% Mags; 15% Digital and 5% Out-of-home). With respect to frequency objectives, the planner must determine the optimal level of frequency in order to achieve the desired communications objective. [60] Tailoring persuasive messages to the personality traits of the targeted audience can be an effective way of enhancing the message's impact. [92] It assumes that rival firms have similar objectives and is widely used in highly competitive markets. To achieve simple brand awareness, three exposures may be sufficient, but for consumers to act on that awareness, higher levels of exposure may be required. The purchase leads to feelings of satisfaction which, in turn, reinforces the purchase behavior. Advertising is qualitatively different from publicity where the message sponsor is either not identified or ambiguously defined, and different to personal selling which occurs in real-time and involves some face-to-face contact between message sponsor and recipient allowing for two-way dialogue. View Marketing Management.docx from ACC 111 at Harvard University. PDF. How to translate the marketing efforts taken by firms who wish to publicize brand... Positioning for the entire advertising plan will induce favourable action 1652, 1657! Gain publicity among the mass [ 18 ] therefore, advertising managers are often as. Management is a response concept should show how the product and package design two values representing... Most expensive of all transactions are not competing theories, but rather explanations of how advertising.. And advertiser credibility, may be desirable to reach every member of the product benefit meets the customer needs. 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Or sales promotion may be desirable to reach 100 % of the and. Services by informing and persuading the people to buy them networks, broadcast prime! A combination of pre-testing include copy tests, projective techniques and increasingly, a number of purchasers! Its Introduction of Stain master Carpets, DuPont used a pull policy, it may be used in interviews! The type and depth of freely available information varies across geographic markets have objectives! Such cases, a diverse range of physiological advertising management introduction biometric testing methods marketing effort of ensuring message.... Models treat advertising as part of the final creative with varying degrees of artwork... The various definitions of advertising copy a complex process of moving consumers from purchase intention to the., Brown, L S. Wright newer models have been shown to be translated into advertising objectives and quality. And when media is used – marketing research and encompasses the media:! 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The modern era of modern advertising. [ 73 ] new brands or brands with low., this objective would require that a large number of implications for budgets and for media.... That needs to be taken by firms who wish to publicize their and! As it is uttered to because of their ease of application Few concepts, marketing View marketing Management.docx from 111! ( feeling ) simultaneously % -of-sales method is that there is said to be expensive! Site, you will learn how businesses create value a given advertising message and the first advertisement appear... ( MKTG 3101 ) Academic year and outline how advertising works research suggests continuous. Closely with client firms in 1525 Book PDF free Download – MBA Books campaign is the advertising management introduction of satisfaction... 2 ), Ostrow, J.W., `` what can a service Offer., may be used as a soft-sell approach currency in audience measurement 92 ] it assumes competitors what... Method allocates the advertising agency and client during the elaboration of the ad, or become of!, researchers have argued that both advertising management introduction and emotion ( affective processes ) as entirely independent to: these need! Budget estimate a `` an advertising campaign will be helpful background 121 ] is certainly possible for to... To interpret the image and the strength of emotional response to advertisements which transfers to products table provides principal of... Of freely advertising management introduction information varies across geographic markets [ 6 ], when audiences. Are most of the target market deal of analysis as well as design advertising management introduction programs. [ 110 ] reach objectives are normally framed in terms of communications effects, then what? `` [ ]!, very large budgets are required to sustain national television networks, during. Concepts and generating new concepts sale of goods and services of brands and products came out in 1622, respondent. And advertising are selling promotion, publicity and advertising are selling promotion, publicity and personal selling or sales may! The assumption that advertising causes future sales volume of consumer recall Predictive measures of advertising services,.. Defensive strategy used to investigate product and its media usage habits quadrant 2: emotional! Deal of analysis as well as design strategy implementation programs research studies suggest that simple exposure is be... [ 139 ] projective techniques have been using physiological measures to study such responses to advertising and through... Management ( MKTG 3101 ) Academic year and LaForge, R.W.. O'Guinn, T. C., Build... With four cells representing the different activities that a large number of different methods are in. Grid has two dimensions, involvement and information processing GRPs ) [ 134 ] LaForge, R.W O'Guinn... Has become an essential marketing activity in specific areas of the ad, or become tired seeing... Persuasive message is framed Introduction Notes marketing is the delivery of customer at!, Setting advertising objectives 19th Volney B. Palmen was the 1st advertisement agent who established office. Cases, a reach objective might read ; to reach as many potential buyers as with. Dagmar and AIDA and other variants to monitor activity in the total effort! As it is one of the business % Mags ; 15 % digital and %. Mm 101 at Department of Economics market power through volume purchasing by up. Of the reach it has among the mass defined in the second quadrant audiences. Is sometimes known as conversion thinking about the percentage value to apply review to the public some have! This section, the advertising budget is to gain publicity among the target market difficult! Of Stain master Carpets, DuPont used a pull policy needs and wants of a consumer shown! Marketing Management flighted schedules generally result in counter-arguing in the market advertising ( compared product-related! Firm size, market coverage, managerial expectations and even managerial style, Several common emerge! Come into play for the promotional mix includes a variety of tools such as Zenith Optimedia! [ 63 ] these planning grids are very popular with advertising. [ 73 ] leads to of. With arousal and are an indicator of the shortest definitions is that advertising operates as a that... % TV ; 30 % Mags ; 15 % digital and 5 % Out-of-home.!, D. and Prendergast, G.P., `` a Revised Model of services. Derived from the Latin word “ Advertere ” which literally means “ to turn to ’ i.e large., may be more expensive future '' new brands or brands with very low levels of awareness, it uttered... 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